Radiologic Clinics Of North America Advances in Intestinal Imaging

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The reference of a sensation to its point of origin. The determination of the location of a tumor, disease or other morbid process. Low dose rate LDR brachytherapy A radiation therapy treatment for cancer that involves the placement of a radioactive material directly inside the body, in or near a tumor, for a specific amount of time and then withdrawn.

In LDR brachytherapy, the patient is treated with a low dose of radiation for hours at a time. A minimally invasive diagnostic test that involves the removal of a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid —the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord—or an injection of medication or another substance into the lumbar or lower region of the spinal column. Lumpectomy generally refers to the removal of a lump from the breast as an alternative to mastectomy, which is the removal of the entire breast including the lump. As a rule, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes an upper, a middle, and a lower , while the left has but two lobes an upper and a lower.

Each lung is irregularly conical in shape, presenting a blunt upper extremity the apex , a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface following the inner curve of the ribs, an inner or mediastinal surface, a thin and sharp anterior border, and a thick and rounded posterior border. This surgery is only used for those with severe emphysema.

Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells chiefly lymphocytes , and a few red blood cells. This procedure has been replaced by lymphoscintigraphy. The two major subgroups of lymphocytes are: B cells that produce antibodies and T cells that destroy disease-causing pathogens.

See the Lymphoscintigraphy page for more information. For details see the MR Angiography page. See the MRCP page for additional information.

Malignant is also less commonly used to describe other medical conditions that are severe and becoming progressively worse. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance may also be used to image the breast. For details see the Mammography page. A small amount of healthy tissue surrounding a tumor that may be surgically removed with diseased tissue. This space is mostly occupied by the heart and its major blood vessels, and by the trachea and esophagus. They oversee the work of the dosimetrist and help ensure that complex treatments are properly tailored for each patient.

Qualified medical physicists are responsible for developing and directing quality control programs for equipment and procedures. They are responsible for making sure the equipment works properly. Medical radiation physicists take precise measurements of radiation beam characteristics and do other safety tests on a regular basis.

Qualified medical physicists have doctorates or master's degrees. Qualified medical physicists have completed four years of college, two to four years of graduate school and typically one to two years of clinical physics training. Women typically experience menstruation also called a period on a monthly basis throughout their sexually reproductive years, from puberty until menopause, except when pregnant or breastfeeding. Metformin See Glucophage.

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Unlike a standard intravenous catheter IV which is for short term use, a vascular access catheter is more durable and does not easily become blocked or infected. The midline catheter is inches in length. MCI is considered a transitional state between normal forgetfulness and dementia. Common examples of minimally invasive procedures would be stereotactic breast biopsy, heart catheterization or temporary placement of an implanted port for chemotherapy.

Monoclonal antibodies mimic the antibodies naturally produced by the body's immune system that attack invading foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses. When combined with a chemotherapy drug or radioactive material , monoclonal antibodies are able to deliver the cancer-killing agent directly to the cancer cell. MR enterography A special type of magnetic resonance imaging MRI performed with a contrast material to produce detailed images of the small intestine. This diagnostic imaging technique measures the concentration of metabolites, which are produced by chemical reactions in the brain and other areas of the body, and displays the results as a graph.

The peaks in the graph represent various metabolites. The concentration of these metabolites can be altered by many diseases, including tumor, infections and trauma. Mucous helps protect and lubricate surfaces within the body.

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Its purpose is to identify spinal lesions caused by disease or injury. See the Myelography page for more information. Multiple myeloma is an uncommon cancer of the white blood cells in the bone marrow that is associated with anemia, hemorrhage, recurrent infections, and weakness. If blood flow is not quickly restored, the section of the heart wall involved may begin to die. Although these tumors are not cancerous, they may cause heavy menstrual bleeding, pain in the pelvic region and pressure on the bladder or bowel. It has existed since the beginning of time and is an integral part of the universe in which we live.

Life as we know it on earth has evolved in the presence of radiation. Radiation comes to us from many sources both natural and man-made. These sources include cosmic radiation from outer space, radiation from the soil and buildings, and natural isotopes in our own bodies. Cosmic radiation and terrestrial radiation vary with location. The procedure is used primarily to obtain cells from a lesion containing fluid.

There are two types of needle electrodes: a simple straight needle; and a straight, hollow needle that contains several retractable electrodes that extend when needed. Needle electrodes may also be a part of devices that monitor electrical activity for diagnostic purposes such as in the performance of electromyography and nerve conduction studies. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue, which may be either benign benign tumor or malignant cancer.

It causes a thickening of the skin, organs and other tissues. Threadlike extensions from a nerve cell. A specialized cell in the brain and nervous system that receives and sends electrical impulses through networks of connections. A lump can be benign or malignant. Examples include CT and MR scanning and ultrasound.

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NSAID A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces swelling and pain, such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Certain imaging procedures, including PET scanning, employ radionuclides to provide real-time visuals of biochemical processes. One device, a nuclear imaging machine, employs a scintillation camera, which can rotate around the body to pick up radiation emitted by an injected substance e.

A digitized image of a particular organ, or the whole body, is produced. The nucleus is filled with a soft, rubber-like material. Osteoporosis is primarily classified as an age-related decline in bone mineral density. Secondary osteoporosis results from an identifiable disease for example, diseases of the parathyroid glands, or, for instance, certain medications.

See the Osteoporosis page for additional information. Paget disease A genetic or viral condition characterized by excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can lead to enlarged or misshapen bones. The pancreas also secretes hormones, most importantly insulin, into the blood to regulate metabolism of the body.

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For x-ray pancreatography, the examination requires direct injection of contrast material into the pancreatic ducts. For MRI, pancreatography is performed without a direct contrast material injection, however an intravenous injection of contrast material may be used. Pap test Also known as Pap smear. They are named the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. Protons can pass through healthy tissue without damaging it. See the Proton Therapy page for more information. They are used in embolization procedures to stop bleeding or block arteries that provide blood flow to a tumor.

Arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain in which arteries in the extremities legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, usually as a result of atherosclerosis or plaque. The most common form of PAD affects the large vessels supplying the legs, which can cause severe pain on walking and may in time make a patient immobile.


See the Peripheral Artery Disease page for more information. Unlike a standard intravenous catheter IV which is for short term use, a PICC is more durable and does not easily become blocked or infected. The space within the peritoneum not occupied by the abdominal organs. In most circumstances, this space is empty and the cavity is collapsed. In certain disease, this space can become filled with fluid. In other circumstances, this space may be intentionally inflated with carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery, or with a sterile solution for peritoneal dialysis.

The port has a silicone rubber top that can be penetrated by a needle and an attached catheter that is designed to hang down into the abdominal or peritoneal cavity.